# PSY 315 Week 1 Practice Problem Worksheet Updated

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PSY 315 Week 1 Practice Problem Worksheet Updated

Provide a response to the following questions. Written responses should be at least 30 to 45 words each.

1.         Explain and provide an example for each of the following types of variables:

a.         Nominal:

b.         Ordinal:

c.         Interval:

d.         Ratio scale:

e.         Continuous:

f.          Discrete:

g.         Quantitative:

h.         Qualitative:

2.         The following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35 miles-per-hour zone on an afternoon:

30, 36, 42, 36, 30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20
24, 46, 23, 31, 32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40

Create a frequency table and a histogram. Then, describe the general shape of the distribution.

3.         Raskauskas and Stoltz (2007) asked a group of 84 adolescents about their involvement in traditional and electronic bullying. The researchers defined electronic bullying as “…a means of bullying in which peers use electronics (such as text messages, emails, and defaming Web sites) to taunt, threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer” (p. 565). The table below is a frequency table showing the adolescents’ reported incidence of being victims or perpetrators of traditional and electronic bullying.

a.         Using the table below as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never taken a course in statistics.

b.         Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results.

4.         Describe whether each of the following data words best describes descriptive statistics or inferential statistics. Explain your reasoning.

a.         Describe:

b.         Infer:

c.         Summarize:

5.         Compare the three types of research methods and statistics.

6.         Regarding gun ownership in the United States, data from Gallup polls over a 40-year period show how gun ownership in the United States has changed. The results are described below, with the percentage of Americans who own guns given in each of the 5 decades.

a.         Are the percentages reported above an example of descriptive statistics or inferential statistics?  Why?

b.         Based on the table, how would you describe the changes in gun ownership in the United States over the 40 years shown?

7.         Refer to the Simpson-Southward et al. (2016) article from this week’s electronic readings. Was this an example of inferential statistics and research or descriptive statistics and research? Justify your response.

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# PSY 315 Week 3 Inferential Research and Statistics Project Part 1 (PTSD) Updated

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PSY 315 Week 3 Inferential Research and Statistics Project Part 1 (PTSD) Updated

Select one of the following scenarios based on your particular field of interest in psychology:

Industrial/Organizational Psychology:

A few months ago, the upper management at a large corporation decided they wanted to make major changes in the organization. Leadership is concerned that employees may be resistant to the change, and they want to find out if there is a change management method that would help employees accept change more effectively and keep employee satisfaction high. Two methods they have considered are the ADKAR Framework and the Prosci Change Management Methodology. The company wants to implement a small change in two departments before they make any major organization changes and would like to test the methods. The corporation uses the Devine Company to measure employee satisfaction with an anonymous survey.

Applied Psychology:

A large medical facility is experiencing too many missed appointments in its primary and specialty care clinics. The facility has noticed that not all patients respond well to reminder calls regarding follow-up appointments. Some patients do not answer calls and do not seem to respond to voice mail requesting they call the facility. The result is that many follow up appointments are missed. Management has read articles that people respond very well to text messages and would like to see which method provides the least amount of missed appointments. Missed appointments are tracked in the facility database on a monthly basis.

General Psychology:

Clinicians at a small clinic have been introduced to a new method to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their clients for veterans. Research indicates that virtual reality (VR) is a highly effective treatment option for patients with PTSD. Currently, the clinic uses only cognitive processing therapy (CPT) with their patients suffering from PTSD. The clinicians would like to find out whether VR therapy has different results from CPT therapy. The measure used by the clinic to measure PTSD symptoms is the Combat Exposure Scale. Both therapies need to be applied for a minimum of 12 weeks to be effective.

Write a 525- to 750-word paper that addresses the following for your chosen scenario:

Clearly define the problem or issue you are addressing. Provide a brief background of any research you have found that might affect your research hypothesis.

Create a research hypothesis based on the information provided in each scenario. You will be given a data set with two sets of interval data (just the numbers, as you must decide what they represent, such as method A results or method B results). This means you are going to test one thing against another, such as which method works best (step 1 of the steps to hypothesis testing). State the null and research hypotheses. Explain whether these hypotheses require a one-tailed test or two-tailed test, and explain your rationale.

Describe the sample you will use. Sample size will be 30 for each group, which will be provided in your data set. Explain what type of sampling you selected. You may create your own data set if you want, as it is only hypothetical—you do not need to collect any data.

Do you think you would also collect some descriptive data, such as gender, age, or shift? Why do you think it makes sense to collect descriptive data?

Format your paper according to APA guidelines.

Example

You have a hypothesis that two drugs have different effects on lowering anxiety. You would have anxiety scores for drug A and anxiety scores for drug B (all after 4 weeks of treatment) to run inferential analysis  after 4 weeks.

Null hypothesis is H0: drug A = drug B
Research hypothesis is H1: drug A ≠ drug B
Dependent variable: Anxiety score changed after treatment.
Independent variable: drug treatment

Because you did not state a direction in your hypotheses (better than or worse than), this will be a two-tailed test. You are looking for differences in either direction. You would set your alpha level of .05 and have a sample for each group of 30 people that were volunteers for the study.

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# PSY 315 Week 3 Practice Problems Worksheet Updated

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PSY 315 Week 3 Practice Problems Worksheet Updated

Resource:Statistics for Psychology

Complete the Week Three Practice Problems Worksheet.

Click the assignment files tab to submit your assignment.

Note. Methods of computation may include the usage of Microsoft® Excel®, SPSS™, Lotus®, SAS®, Minitab®, or by-hand computation.

Chapter 4

List the five steps of hypothesis testing, and explain the procedure and logic of each.

Based on the information given for the following studies, decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. Assume that all populations are normally distributed. For each, give:

a.       The Z-score cutoff (or cutoffs) on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected.

b.      The Z-score on the comparison distribution for the sample score.

A researcher predicts that listening to music while solving math problems will make a particular brain area more active. To test this, a research participant has her brain scanned while listening to music and solving math problems, and the brain area of interest has a percentage signal change of 58. From many previous studies with this same math problem’s procedure (but not listening to music), it is known that the signal change in this brain is normally distributed with a mean of 35 and a standard deviation of 10.

a.       Using the .01 level, what should the researcher conclude? Solve this problem explicity using all five steps of hypothesis testing, and illustrate your answer with a sketch showing the comparison distribution, the cutoff (or cutoffs), and the score of the sample on this distribution.

b.      Explain your answer to someone who has never had a course in statistics (but who is familiar with mean, standard deviation, and Z scores).

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# PSY 315 Week 4 Inferential Research and Statistics Project Part 2 (PTSD) Updated

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PSY 315 Week 4 Inferential Research and Statistics Project Part 2 (PTSD) Updated

Analyze the data from Part 1 using Microsoft® Excel® software.
Write a 700- to 875-word paper that includes the following information:

Describe what method you are using to compare groups.
Copy and paste the output into a Microsoft® Word document, and also answer the following questions:

What is the significance level of the comparison?
What was the alpha level you identified in Week 3?
What was the means and variance for each variable?
What was the test statistic?
What was the critical value for both the one- and two-tailed test?
Was your test one-tailed or two-tailed?
Were you able to reject the null hypothesis? In other words, did you prove there was a difference?

Talk about what these results mean in everyday language and in context to your chosen scenario.
Make a recommendation based on the findings.

Format your paper according to APA guidelines.

Example of Output You Would Use to Answer These Questions

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# PSY 315 Week 4 Practice Problem Worksheet (Version 7) Updated

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PSY 315 Week 4 Practice Problem Worksheet (Version 7) Updated

Two boats, the Prada (Italy) and the Oracle (USA), are competing for a spot in the upcoming America’s Cup race. They race over a part of the course several times. The sample times in minutes for the Prada were as follows: 12.9, 12.5, 11.0, 13.3, 11.2, 11.4, 11.6, 12.3, 14.2, and 11.3. The sample times in minutes for the Oracle were as follows: 14.1, 14.1, 14.2, 17.4, 15.8, 16.7, 16.1, 13.3, 13.4, 13.6, 10.8, and 19.0. For data analysis, the appropriate test is the t test: two-sample assuming unequal variances.

The next table shows the results of this independent t test. At the .05 significance level, can you conclude that there is a difference in their mean times? Explain these results to a person who knows about the t test for a single sample but who is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means.

The Willow Run Outlet Mall has two Haggar Outlet Stores, one located on Peach Street and the other on Plum Street. The two stores are laid out differently, but both store managers claim their layout maximizes the amounts customers will purchase on impulse. A sample of 10 customers at the Peach Street store revealed they spent the following amounts more than planned: \$17.58, \$19.73, \$12.61, \$17.79, \$16.22, \$15.82, \$15.40, \$15.86, \$11.82, \$15.85. A sample of 14 customers at the Plum Street store revealed they spent the following amounts more than they planned when they entered the store: \$18.19, \$20.22, \$17.38, \$17.96, \$23.92, \$15.87, \$16.47, \$15.96, \$16.79, \$16.74, \$21.40, \$20.57, \$19.79, \$14.83. For data analysis, a t test: two-sample assuming unequal variances was used.

At the .01 significance level, is there a difference in the mean amount purchased on an impulse at the two stores? Explain these results to a person who knows about the t test for a single sample but who is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means.

Fry Brothers Heating and Air Conditioning, Inc. employs Larry Clark and George Murnen to make service calls to repair furnaces and air conditioning units in homes. Tom Fry, the owner, would like to know whether there is a difference in the mean number of service calls they make per day. Assume the population standard deviation for Larry Clark is 1.05 calls per day, and 1.23 calls per day for George Murnen. A random sample of 40 days last year showed that Larry Clark made an average of 4.77 calls per day. For a sample of 50 days, George Murnen made an average of 5.02 calls per day. At the .05 significance level, is there a difference in the mean number of calls per day between the two employees? What is the p-value?

Chapters 11 & 12

A consumer organization wants to know if there is a difference in the price of a particular toy at three different types of stores. The price of the toy was checked in a sample of five discount toy stores, five variety stores, and five department stores. The results are shown below.
An ANOVA was run and the results are shown below.  At the .05 significance level, is there a difference in the mean prices between the three stores? What is the p-value?  Explain why an ANOVA was used to analyze this problem.

A physician who specializes in weight control has three different diets she recommends. As an experiment, she randomly selected 15 patients and then assigned 5 to each diet. After three weeks the following weight losses, in pounds, were noted. At the .05 significance level, can she conclude that there is a difference in the mean amount of weight loss among the three diets?
An ANOVA was run and the results are shown below.  At the .01 significance level, is there a difference in the weight loss between the three plans? What is the p-value?  What can you do to determine exactly where the difference is?

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# PSY 315 Week 5 Inferential Research and Statistics Project Part 3 Presentation (PTSD) Updated

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PSY 315 Week 5 Inferential Research and Statistics Project Part 3 Presentation (PTSD) Updated

Create a 12- to 15-slide presentation using the information you gathered and submitted in Weeks 3 & 4. Include the following:

Describe the problem, and provide some brief background about the situation.

Explain the research hypothesis.