Category Archives: MTH 231

MTH 231 Final Exam Guide Set 2 Updated

MTH 231 Final Exam Guide Set 2 Updated

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MTH 231 Final Exam Guide Set 2 Updated

We have another set of final exam guide which could be found on this link

 

Use the following table for questions 1 and 2.

Butterflies   Red   Blue   Orange   Yellow

Collected in spring   3   2   1   24

Collected in summer   14   7   8   24

Collected in autumn   12   72   9   43

1.   If you randomly select one butterfly from the table above, what is the probability of selecting a red butterfly or one collected in spring?

2.   If you randomly select one butterfly collected in spring, one butterfly collected in summer, and one butterfly collected in autumn, what is the probability of selecting all yellow butterflies?

3.   Determine the appropriate approach to conduct a hypothesis test for this claim: Fewer than 5% of patients experience negative treatment effects. Sample data: Of 500 randomly selected patients, 2.2% experience negative treatment effects.

A) Use the normal distribution.

B) Use the Student t distribution.

C) Use the chi-square distribution.

D) Use nonparametric or bootstrapping methods.

4.   Determine the appropriate approach to conduct a hypothesis test for this claim: The systolic blood pressure of men who run at least five miles each week varies less than does the systolic blood pressure of all men. Sample data: n = 100 randomly selected men who run at least five miles each week, sample mean = 108.4, and s = 20.3

A) Use the normal distribution.

B) Use the Student t distribution.

C) Use the chi-square distribution.

D) Use nonparametric or bootstrapping methods.

5.   Determine the appropriate approach to conduct a hypothesis test for this claim: The mean sodium content of a 30 g serving of snack crackers is 2,200 mg. Sample data: n = 130 snack crackers, sample mean= 3,100 mg, and s = 570. The sample data appear to come from a normally distributed population.

A) Use the normal distribution.

B) Use the Student t distribution.

C) Use the chi-square distribution.

D) Use nonparametric or bootstrapping methods.

Use the following sample data to answer questions 6 through 12.A study of physical fitness tests for 12 randomly selected premedical students measured their exercise capacity (in minutes). The following data resulted:

25 61 23 22 24 53

33 31 23 23 63 71

6. Calculate the mean of the students’ exercise capacity.

7. Calculate the median of the students’ exercise capacity.

8. Calculate the mode of the students’ exercise capacity.

9. Calculate the standard deviation of the students’ exercise capacity.

10. Calculate a 90% Confidence Interval for the student’s mean exercise capacity.

11.   If premedical student Alisha has the exercise capacity of 42 minutes, convert her score to a z score among the distribution of exercise capacity above.

12.   Alisha’s grandmother has an exercise capacity of 21 minutes, as measured in a similar study among Americans over seventy years old. The study sample has a mean of 15.2 minutes and a standard deviation of 7.3 minutes. Convert Alisha’s grandmother’s score to a z score among the distribution of exercise capacity in Americans over seventy years old. Who has a relatively longer exercise capacity compared to her peers—Alisha or her grandmother?

13.   Choose the procedure that will allow dental patients to be researched using a binomial distribution:

A)   Surveying dental patients and asking them how their visit could have been made more enjoyable

B)   Asking dental patients as they enter the office how often they floss

C)   Surveying a set number of dental patients and asking them if they have dental insurance

D)   Asking patients as they enter the office whether they flossed before the appointment

E)   Surveying dental patients and asking them how their teeth feel after their appointment

14. Select the procedure that results in a Poisson distribution and explain.

F)   Researching the Northern Spotted Owls’ number of feedings per month

G)   Researching the Barred Owls’ wingspan in inches

H)   Researching the Snowy Owls’ preferred nesting locations

I)   Researching the Sooty Owls’ longevity

15. Choose the procedure that will allow fire ants to be researched using a Poisson distribution.

J)   Counting fire ants per square centimeter of a mound

K)   Counting fire ant mounds per square kilometer throughout North America

L)   Surveying 2,080 North Americans to determine how many fire ant bites they have suffered in the past year

M)   Surveying 2,080 North Americans to determine how they feel about fire ants

N)  Recording the locations of fire ant mounds each year in one county over a span of 40 years​

MTH 231 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

MTH 231 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

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MTH 231 Week 1 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

Week 1 DQ 1

Select the commodity of your best interest by ticking the box. You should get the data table thru clicking “retrieve” button at the end part of the list. ( You may use a commodity which is not explained in the class)

Select the data among the month from 10 to 11 years as depicted below. Paste it to your clipboard using your mouse. Use only the numbers, not the month.

Apply statdisk and paste it on statdisk. You are then required to select which column to be used. You have to choose column 1.

 

Week 1 DQ 2

There are two broad areas of statistics: inferential and descriptive. In inferential statistics, we use analytical methods to derive meaning from our data. In descriptive statistics, we study effective ways to describe the data. Charts and graphs are very important in descriptive statistics. Compare the graphs in Figures 2-6, 2-7, and 2-10 in the text. What does each graph communicate? How effective is each graph in communicating this information? How would you choose the kind of graph to use for a specific project? Give an example.​

MTH 231 Week 1 Individual Assignment Populations and Sampling Paper Updated

MTH 231 Week 1 Individual Assignment Populations and Sampling Paper Updated

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MTH 231 Week 1 Individual Assignment Populations and Sampling Paper Updated

Resources: Ch. 1 of the text, the Internet, and the University Library

Consider how life sciences researchers collect information from samples to learn about populations.

Write a 700- to 1,050-word paper about sampling from populations.

Include the following information:

Define population and describe the characteristics of a population.

Define sample and describe the characteristics of a sample.

Compare samples and populations and explain how the concepts are related. Provide examples to illustrate your arguments.

Explain how to increase the chance that a sample is representative of a chosen population. Provide an example.

Describe random sampling and its benefits for research.

Cite at least two references.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

MTH 231 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

MTH 231 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

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MTH 231 Week 2 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

Suppose a birdwatcher averages spotting 0.3 rare finches every day during the two hours allotted for watching. This means that the birdwatcher spots, on average, three rare finches every 10 days. The average is based on considerable experience. Over a given 10-day period, the birdwatcher sees zero rare finches in five days, and on the sixth day, the birdwatcher declares, “I’m due to see a rare finch today.”

Assume that the environmental conditions are reasonably constant with no seasonal migratory issues involved. There is reasonably consistent weather and there are no confounding (lurking, unseen) variables involved. There is, however, a flaw in the birdwatcher’s statement. What is the error and why is it wrong?

Would you choose the binomial pdf (probability distribution function) or would you choose the Poisson pdf to better analyze the birdwatcher’s scenario (Triola, Sec. 4.3 & 4.4, 2006)? State the necessary criteria for each distribution and support your decision.

Triola, M. M., Triola, M. D., &Triola, M. F. (2006). Biostatistics for the biological and health sciences. Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database.

 

Week 2 DQ 2

Read the article What are Relative Risk, Number Needed to Treat and Odds Ratio? from the Electronic Reserve Readings on the Materials web page for Week 2. Summarize the measures of relative risk, number needed to treat, and odds ratios. In your opinion, which of these measures is most informative? Why are they frequently used together? Explain

MTH 231 Week 2 Individual Assignment Data-Organizing, Summarizing, Probability, and Distribution Worksheet Updated

MTH 231 Week 2 Individual Assignment Data-Organizing, Summarizing, Probability, and Distribution Worksheet Updated

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MTH 231 Week 2 Individual Assignment Data-Organizing, Summarizing, Probability, and Distribution Worksheet Updated

Resources: Ch. 2–4 and Appendix B of the text and Statdisk

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Data—Organizing, Summarizing, Probability, and Distribution Worksheet located in Week Two of the student website (Materials web page).

MTH 231 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

MTH 231 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

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MTH 231 Week 3 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

Week 3 DQ 1

What are the characteristics of a normal probability distribution function (pdf).

What is the standard normal pdf? How is it related to the normal pdf and why is it useful?

Explain the Empirical Rule? Is it used for rough estimates or precise calculations?

Briefly tell how to use Table A-2 in the Appendix of our text to calculate z-values (Triola, 2006). How is area under the standard normal curve related to probability? Is the table arranged so that probability is cumulative from the left or from the right?

Briefly tell how Statdisk may be used to give even more accurate table values (Statdisk>> Analysis >> Probability Distributions >> Normal Distribution).

 

Week 3 DQ 2

Precisely, in simple language, what is a confidence interval?

What is the difference between a statistic that is a point estimator and one that is an interval estimator? When might you prefer an interval estimator over a point estimator?

What is a confidence level with respect to a confidence interval?

What is a critical value and why is it important?

What happens to the margin of error for a confidence interval when the sample size is increased? How is the margin of error related to the width of the confidence interval? State this relationship in mathematical terms.

What happens to the width of the confidence interval if the confidence level is increased from 95% to 99%? That is, does the width increase or decrease? Why?

What happens to the width of the confidence interval if n, the size of the sample, is increased? Why?

For additional participation credit, also comment within the thread of the message posted in the Main Forum: Example: Using Statdisk to Find a Confidence Interval​

MTH 231 Week 3 Team Assignment Life Sciences Article Analysis Updated

MTH 231 Week 3 Team Assignment Life Sciences Article Analysis Updated

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MTH 231 Week 3 Team Assignment Life Sciences Article Analysis Updated

Resources: Ch. 3 and 4 of the text, the Week Two Electronic

Reserve Readings “Fetal Deaths and Proximity to Hazardous Waste Sites in Washington State” and “Intensive Lipid Lowering With Atorvastatin in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease, Diabetes, and Chronic Kidney Disease,” the Internet, and the University Library

Discuss the methodology of life sciences researchers in the two articles. Explore the data collection and analysis techniques used by the authors of these articles in preparation for the Life Sciences Article Analysis.

Write a 1,050- to 1,750-word paper about dependence and probability. Discuss the following questions:

What population is researched in each article?

What data are collected by the authors in each article? What are the independent events or variables? What are the dependent events or variables? Evaluate whether the authors make appropriate claims related to the independence or dependence of the events or variables they investigate.

Explain relative risk, odds ratios, and fetal death rates. Describe the use of these tools in the article “Fetal Deaths and Proximity to Hazardous Waste Sites in Washington State.”

Explain absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat.

Describe the use of these tools in the article “Intensive Lipid

Lowering With Atorvastatin in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease, Diabetes, and Chronic Kidney Disease.”

Summarize how communication of scientific findings is facilitated with the concept of dependence and with tools for expressing probability.

Cite at least four references.

Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines.

MTH 231 Week 4 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

MTH 231 Week 4 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

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MTH 231 Week 4 DQ 1 and DQ 2 Updated

Week 4 DQ 1

State the criteria for choosing a t-test and a z-test. Then give an example of a problem in which you would use z-test to evaluate the data. Next, take the same example and modify it so that a t-test would be preferable. Explain why.

 

Week 4 DQ 2

In general terms:

• What is a null hypothesis?

• What is an alternative hypothesis?

Under American criminal jurisprudence, the accused is presumed innocent until proven guilty beyond the “shadow of a doubt.”

• What is the null hypothesis?

• What is the alternative hypothesis?

• Explain how the Type I and Type II errors apply to the court system.

• In court, what is the equivalent of the test statistic upon which the decision is based?

• In statistical terms, how would you define “shadow of a doubt?”

• In statistics, why should the decision always be stated in terms of the null hypothesis? (That is: reject the null hypothesis or fail to reject the null hypothesis.)

MTH 231 Week 4 Individual Assignment Distribution, Hypothesis Testing, and Error Worksheet Updated

MTH 231 Week 4 Individual Assignment Distribution, Hypothesis Testing, and Error Worksheet Updated

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MTH 231 Week 4 Individual Assignment Distribution, Hypothesis Testing, and Error Worksheet Updated

Resources: Ch. 5–7 of the text and Statdisk

Complete the University of Phoenix Material: Distribution, Hypothesis Testing, and Error Worksheet, located in Week Four of the student website.

 

MTH 231 Week 4 Team Assignment Confidence Intervals in the Life Sciences Presentation Updated

MTH 231 Week 4 Team Assignment Confidence Intervals in the Life Sciences Presentation Updated

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MTH 231 Week 4 Team Assignment Confidence Intervals in the Life Sciences Presentation Updated

Resources: Ch. 5 and 6 of the text, the University Library, the Internet, and Statdisk

Identify a normally distributed variable related to your chosen life science that serves as your example variable. Review the data sets presented in Appendix B of the text and in Statdisk, selecting one that corresponds with your chosen life science. Choose a particular variable you would like to explore and use Statdisk to determine if its distribution is approximately normal.

Note. Data Set 5: Passive and Active Smoke in the text does not include normally distributed data and may not be used in this project.

Prepare a 12- to 15-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation that explains confidence intervals in your chosen life science. Imagine that you are responsible for educating first-year college students who are majoring in your chosen life science. Explain to the students how and why confidence intervals relate to their field.

Discuss the following questions:

What is a normal distribution? Describe your example variable and explain why normally distributed data is important in your chosen life science. Show the distribution of your example variable in a Statdisk-generated image and demonstrate how to calculate the probability of a range of values within this normal distribution.

What is a standard normal distribution? How does it differ from other normal distributions? Convert the normally distributed example variable within your chosen life science to a standard normal distribution. Show this example in a Statdisk-generated image and demonstrate how to calculate the probability of a range of values within this standard normal distribution.

What is a confidence interval? Outline how confidence intervals may be used in your chosen life science. Demonstrate how to define confidence intervals within the normal distribution example variable.

What is a confidence level? Show how a confidence level relates to the confidence interval using the example variable.

What is a critical value? Show how critical values relate to the confidence interval using the example variable.

What is a margin of error? Describe how a margin of error relates to confidence intervals and to your chosen life science.

Provide an example related to your example variable.

What is a point estimate? Explain how a point estimate found from a confidence interval would be applied in your chosen life science. Provide an example related to your example variable.

What can a confidence interval tell researchers in your chosen life science about an estimate of population mean? Provide an example related to your example variable.

What can a confidence interval tell researchers in your chosen life science about an estimate of population variance? Provide an example related to your example variable.

Include a title slide and conclusion slide, and cite at least four references on a references slide.

Present the information about confidence intervals and your chosen life science to the instructor and the class just as you would to firstyear college students who need this information.

For Local Campus students, these are oral presentations accompanied by Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentations.

For Online and Directed Study students, these are Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentations with notes.

Discuss with your classmates and answer questions.