# HLT 362V Entire Course Updated

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HLT 362V Entire Course Updated

HLT 362V Week 1 Assignment Workbook Exercise 6, 8, 9, 11, 16, 27 Updated

HLT 362V Week 1 Discussion Question 1 How Can Graphics and Statistics be Used to Misrepresent Data Updated

HLT 362V Week 1 Discussion Question 2 What Are The Characteristics Of A Population Updated

HLT 362V Week 2 Assignment Workbook Exercise 10,18, 26 Updated

HLT 362V Week 2 Discussion Question 1 Explain The Importance Of Random Sampling Updated

HLT 362V Week 2 Discussion Question 2 How Large Would Your Population Updated

HLT 362V Week 3 Assignment Workbook Exercise 16, 17, 20, 31 and 32 Updated

HLT 362V Week 3 Discussion Question 1 Explain When a Z-Test Would Be Appropriate Over a T-Test Updated

HLT 362V Week 3 Discussion Question 2 Researchers Routinely Choose An α-Level of 0.05 For Testing Their Hypotheses Updated

HLT 362V Week 4 Assignment Workbook Exercise 18, 33 and 36 Updated

HLT 362V Week 4 Discussion Question 1 If The Result Of An ANOVA Experiment Was “not Significant” Updated

HLT 362V Week 4 Discussion Question 2 What Is An Interaction Updated

HLT 362V Week 5 Assignment Workbook Exercise 14 and 19, 23 24, 29 and 35 Updated

HLT 362V Week 5 Discussion Question 1 Describe The Error in The Conclusion Updated

HLT 362V Week 5 Discussion Question 2 Now That You Are Familiar With The Basic Concepts Of Statistics Updated

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# HLT 362V Week 1 Assignment Workbook Exercise 6, 8, 9, 11, 16, 27 Updated

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HLT 362V Week 1 Assignment Workbook Exercise 6, 8, 9, 11, 16, 27 Updated

Exercise 6

What are the frequency and percentage of the COPD patients in the severe airﬂow limitation group who are employed in the Eckerblad et al. (2014) study?

What percentage of the total sample is retired? What percentage of the total sample is on sick leave?

What is the total sample size of this study? What frequency and percentage of the total sample were still employed? Show your calculations and round your answer to the nearest whole percent.

What is the total percentage of the sample with a smoking history—either still smoking or former smokers? Is the smoking history for study participants clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What are pack years of smoking? Is there a signiﬁ cant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂ ow limitation groups regarding pack years of smoking? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What were the four most common psychological symptoms reported by this sample of patients with COPD?

What percentage of these subjects experienced these symptoms? Was there a signiﬁcant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂow limitation groups for psychological symptoms?

What frequency and percentage of the total sample used short-acting β 2 -agonists? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.

Is there a signiﬁcant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂ ow limitation groups regarding the use of short-acting β 2 -agonists? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Was the percentage of COPD patients with moderate and severe airﬂ ow limitation using short-acting β 2 -agonists what you expected? Provide a rationale with documentation for your answer.

Exercise 8

The number of nursing students enrolled in a particular nursing program between the years of 2010 and 2016, respectively, were 563, 593, 606, 520, 563, 610, and 577. Determine the mean ( X ), median ( MD ), and mode of the number of the nursing students enrolled in this program. Show your calculations.

What is the mode for the variable inpatient complications in Table 2 of the Winkler et al. (2014) study? What percentage of the study participants had this complication?
Does the distribution of inpatient complications have a single mode, or is this distribution bimodal or multimodal? Provide a rationale for your answer.

4. As reported in Table 1 , what are the three most common cardiovascular medical history events in this study, and why is it clinically important to know the frequency of these events?

What are the mean and median lengths of stay (LOS) for the study participants?

Are the mean and median for LOS similar or different? What might this indicate about the distribution of the sample? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Examine the study results and determine the mode for arrhythmias experienced by the partici-pants. What was the second most common arrhythmia in this sample?

Was the most common arrhythmia in Question 7 related to LOS? Was this result statistically signiﬁ cant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What study variables were independently predictive of the 50 premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) per hour in this study?

In Table 1 , what race is the mode for this sample? Should these study ﬁ ndings be generalized to American Indians with ACS? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 9

What were the name and type of measurement method used to measure Caring Practices in the Roch, Dubois, and Clarke (2014) study?

The data collected with the scale identiﬁed in Questions 1 were at what level of measurement? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What were the subscales included in the CNPISS used to measure RNs ’ perceptions of their Caring Practices? Do these subscales seem relevant? Document your answer.

Which subscale for Caring Practices had the lowest mean? What does this result indicate?

What were the dispersion results for the Relational Care subscale of the Caring Practices in Table 2 ? What do these results indicate?

Which subscale of Caring Practices has the lowest dispersion or variation of scores? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Which subscale of Caring Practices had the highest mean? What do these results indicate?

Compare the Overall rating for Organizational Climate with the Overall rating of Caring Practices. What do these results indicate?

The response rate for the survey in this study was 45%. Is this a study strength or limitation? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What conclusions did the researchers make regarding the caring practices of the nurses in this study? How might these results affect your practice?
Exercise 11

What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement?

What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate?

What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What was the marital status mode for the subjects in the experimental and control groups? Provide both the frequency and percentage for the marital status mode for both groups.

Could a median be determined for the education data? If so, what would the median be for education for the experimental and the control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Can the findings from this study be generalized to Black women? Provide a rationale for your answer.

If there were 32 subjects in the experimental group and 36 subjects in the control group, why is the income data only reported for 30 subjects in the experimental group and 34 subjects in the control group?

Exercise 16

The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement?

1. Nominal

2. Ordinal

3. Interval/ratio

4. Experimental

What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?

Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Which group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.

The mean (X ̅) is a measure of a distribution while the SD is a measure of its scores. Both X ̅ and SD are statistics.

What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the severity scores vary significantly between the control and the experimental groups? Is this important? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Which variable was least affected by the empowerment program? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Was it important for the researchers to include the total means and SDs for the study variables in Table 2 to promote the readers’ understanding of the study results? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 27
What is the mean age of the sample data?

What percentage of patients never used tobacco?

What is the standard deviation for age?

Are there outliers among the values of age? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What is the range of age values?

What percentage of patients were taking inﬂ iximab?

What percentage of patients had rheumatoid arthritis as their primary diagnosis?

What percentage of patients had irritable bowel syndrome as their primary diagnosis?

What is the 95% CI for age?

What percentage of patients had psoriatic arthritis as their primary diagnosis?

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# HLT 362V Week 1 Discussion Question 1 How Can Graphics and Statistics be Used to Misrepresent Data Updated

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HLT 362V Week 1 Discussion Question 1 How Can Graphics and Statistics be Used to Misrepresent Data Updated

How can graphics and/or statistics be used to misrepresent data? Where have you seen this done?

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# HLT 362V Week 1 Discussion Question 2 What Are The Characteristics Of A Population Updated

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HLT 362V Week 1 Discussion Question 2 What Are The Characteristics Of A Population Updated

What are the characteristics of a population for which it would be appropriate to use mean/median/mode? When would the characteristics of a population make them inappropriate to use?

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# HLT 362V Week 2 Assignment Workbook Exercise 10,18, 26 Updated

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HLT 362V Week 2 Assignment Workbook Exercise 10, 18, 26 Updated

Exercise # 10
What demographic variables were measured at the nominal level of measurement in the Oh et al. (2014) study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What statistics were calculated to describe body mass index (BMI) in this study? Were these appropriate? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Were the distributions of scores for BMI similar for the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Was there a significant difference in BMI between the intervention and control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Based on the sample size of N = 41, what frequency and percentage of the sample smoked? What frequency and percentage of the sample were nondrinkers (alcohol)? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.

What measurement method was used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) for the study participants? Discuss the quality of this measurement method and document your response.

What statistic was calculated to determine differences between the intervention and control groups for the lumbar and femur neck BMDs? Were the groups significantly different for BMDs?

The researchers stated that there were no significant differences in the baseline character­istics of the intervention and control groups (see Table 2). Are these groups heterogeneous or homogeneous at the beginning of the study? Why is this important in testing the effec­tiveness of the therapeutic lifestyle modification (TLM) program?

Oh et al. (2014, p. 296) stated that “the adherence rate to the TLM program was 99.6%.” Discuss the importance of intervention adherence, and document your response.

Exercise # 18
Assuming that the distribution is normal for weight relative to the ideal and 99% of the male participants scored between (–53.68, 64.64), where did 95% of the values for weight relative to the ideal lie? Round your answer to two decimal places.

Which of the following values from Table 1 tells us about variability of the scores in a distribution? a. 60.22
b. 11.94 c. 22.57 d. 53.66

Assuming that the distribution for General Health Perceptions is normal, 95% of the females’ scores around the mean were between what values? Round your answer to two decimal places.

Assuming that the distribution of scores for Pain is normal, 95% of the men’s scores around the mean were between what two values? Round your answer to two decimal places.

Were the body image scores signiﬁcantly different for women versus men? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Assuming that the distribution of Mental Health scores for men is normal, where are 99% of the men’s mental health scores around the mean in this distribution? Round your answer to two decimal places.

Assuming that the distribution of scores for Physical Functioning in women is normal, where are 99%of the women’s scores around the mean in this distribution? Round your answer to two decimal places.

Assuming that the distribution of scores is normal, 99% of HIV-positive body image scores around the mean were between what two values? Round your answer to two decimal places.

Assuming that the distribution of scores for Role Functioning is normal, 99% of the men’s scores around the mean were between what values? Round your answer to two decimal places.

What are some of the limitations of this study that decrease the potential for generalizing the findings to the target population?

Exercise # 26

Plot the frequency distribution for “Age at Enrollment” by hand or by using SPSS.

How would you characterize the skewness of the distribution in Question 1—positively skewed, negatively skewed, or approximately normal? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Compare the original skewness statistic and Shapiro-Wilk statistic with those of the smaller dataset (n = 15) for the variable “Age at First Arrest.” How did the statistics change, and how would you explain these differences?

Plot the frequency distribution for “Years of Education” by hand or by using SPSS.

How would you characterize the kurtosis of the distribution in Question 4————, mesokurtic, or platykurtic? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What is the skewness statistic for “Age at Enrollment”? How would you characterize the magnitude of the skewness statistic for “Age at Enrollment”?

What is the kurtosis statistic for “Years of Education”? How would you characterize the magnitude of kurtosis for “Years of Education”?

Using SPSS, compute the Shapiro-Wilk statistic for “Number of Times Fired from Job.” What would you conclude from the results?

In the SPSS output table titled “Tests of Normality,” the Shapiro-Wilk statistic is reported along with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic. Why is the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic inappropriate to report for these example data?

How would you explain the skewness statistic for a particular frequency distribution being low and the Shapiro-Wilk statistic still being significant at p < 0.05?

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# HLT 362V Week 2 Discussion Question 1 Explain The Importance Of Random Sampling Updated

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HLT 362V Week 2 Discussion Question 1 Explain The Importance Of Random Sampling Updated

Explain the importance of random sampling. What problems/limitations could prevent a truly random sampling and how can they be prevented?

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# HLT 362V Week 2 Discussion Question 2 How Large Would Your Population Updated

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HLT 362V Week 2 Discussion Question 2 How Large Would Your Population Updated

How large would your population have to be for a sample to be appropriate (i.e., rather than measuring the whole population)?

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# HLT 362V Week 3 Assignment Workbook Exercise 16, 17, 20, 31 and 32 Updated

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HLT 362V Week 3 Workbook Assignment Exercise 16, 17, 20, 31 and 32 Updated

Exercise # 16: Understanding Independent Samples t-Test

What do degrees of freedom (df ) mean? Canbulat et al. (2015) did not provide the dfs in their study. Why is it important to know the df for a t ratio? Using the df formula, calculate the df for this study.

What are the means and standard deviations (SDs) for age for the Buzzy intervention and control groups? What statistical analysis is conducted to determine the difference in means for age for the two groups? Was this an appropriate analysis technique? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What are the t value and p value for age? What do these results mean?

What are the assumptions for conducting the independent samples t-test?

Are the groups in this study independent or dependent? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What is the null hypothesis for procedural self-reported pain measured with the Wong Baker Faces Scale (WBFS) for the two groups? Was this null hypothesis accepted or rejected in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Should a Bonferroni procedure be conducted in this study? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What variable has a result of t = −6.135, p = 0.000? What does this result mean?

In your opinion, is it an expected or unexpected finding that both t values on Table 2 were found to be statistically significant. Provide a rationale for your answer.

Describe one potential clinical benefit for pediatric patients to receive the Buzzy intervention that combined cold and vibration during IV insertion.

Exercise # 17

Understanding Paired or Dependent Samples t-Test

What are the assumptions for conducting a paired or dependent samples t-test in a study? Which of these assumptions do you think were met by the Lindseth et al. (2014) study?

In the introduction, Lindseth et al. (2014) described a “2-week washout between diets.” What does this mean? Why is this important?

What is the paired t-test value for mood (irritability) between the participants’ consump¬tion of high- versus low-aspartame diets? Is the result statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.

State the null hypothesis for mood (irritability) that was tested in this study. Was this hypothesis accepted or rejected? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Which t value in Table 2 represents the greatest relative or standardized difference between the high- and low-aspartame diets? Is this t value statistically significant? Provide a rationale for your answer.​

Discuss why the larger t values are more likely to be statistically significant.

Discuss the meaning of the results regarding depression for this study. What is the clinical importance of this result?

What is the smallest, paired t-test value in Table 2? Why do you think the smaller t values are not statistically significant?

Discuss the statistical and clinical importance of these study results about the consump¬tion of aspartame. Document your answer with a relevant source.

Are these study findings related to the consumption of high- and low-aspartame diets ready for implementation in practice? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise # 20

Which patient scored the highest on the preoperative CVLT Acquisition? What was his or her T score?

Which patient scored the lowest on postoperative CVLT Retrieval? What was this patient’s T score?

Did the patient in Question 2 have more of a memory performance decline than average on the CVLT Retrieval? Provide a rationale for your answer.

What is the mean ( ) and standard deviation (SD) for preoperative T score for CVLT Acquisition?

Is the preoperative Retrieval T score for Patient 5 above or below the mean for the norm of the group? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Assuming that the distribution of the preoperative CVLT Retrieval T scores is normal, the middle 68% of the patients had T scores between what two values?

Assuming that the distribution of scores for the postoperative CVLT Retrieval T scores is normal, the middle 68% of the patients had T scores between what two values?

The researchers state that it appears that the functional integrity of the left temporal lobe, despite evidence of structural abnormality, plays a considerable role when it comes to memory outcomes following left ATL. Can the findings from this study be generalized to a larger population? Provide a rationale for your answer.

If a patient had a raw score = 30, what would his/her postoperative CVLT Retrieval T score be?

Did patients demonstrate more postoperative memory declines among CVLT Retrieval T scores than CVLT Acquisition T scores?

Exercise # 31: Calculating t-tests for Independent Samples

Do the example data meet the assumptions for the independent samples t-test? Provide a rationale for your answer.

If calculating by hand, draw the frequency distributions of the dependent variable, wages earned. What is the shape of the distribution? If using SPSS, what is the result of the Shapiro-Wilk test of normality for the dependent variable?

What are the means for two group’s wages earned?

What is the independent samples t-test value?

Is the t-test significant at a = 0.05? Specify how you arrived at your answer.

If using SPSS, what is the exact likelihood of obtaining a t-test value at least as extreme or as close to the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true?
Which group earned the most money post-treatment?
Write your interpretation of the results, as you would in an APA-formatted journal.

What do the results indicate regarding the impact of the supported employment voca¬tional rehabilitation on wages earned?
Was the sample size adequate to detect significant differences between the two groups in this example? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise # 32: Calculating t-tests for Paired (Dependent) Samples

Do the data meet the assumptions for the paired samples t-test? Provide a rationale for your

If calculating by hand, draw the frequency distributions of the two variables. What are the shapes of the distributions? If using SPSS, what are the results of the Shapiro-Wilk tests of normality for the two variables?

What are the means for the baseline and post-treatment affective distress scores, respectively?

What is the paired samples t-test value?

Is the t-test significant at α = 0.05? Specify how you arrived at your answer.

If using SPSS, what is the exact likelihood of obtaining a t-test value at least as extreme as or as close to the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true?

On average, did the affective distress scores improve or deteriorate over time? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Write your interpretation of the results as you would in an APA-formatted journal.

What do the results indicate regarding the impact of the rehabilitation on emotional dis¬tress levels?

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# HLT 362V Week 3 Discussion Question 1 Explain When a Z-Test Would Be Appropriate Over a T-Test Updated

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HLT 362V Week 3 Discussion Question 1 Explain When a Z-Test Would Be Appropriate Over a T-Test Updated

Explain when a z-test would be appropriate over a t-test.