Category Archives: PSY 352

PSY 352 Week 5 Quiz updated

PSY 352 Week 5 Quiz updated

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PSY 352 Week 5 Quiz updated

 

Question 1

 

Perea, Acha, & Carreiras (2009) investigated the reading comprehension of text messages and found that:

 

orthographically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text.

phonetically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text.

both orthographically- and phonetically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text.

neither orthographically- nor phonetically based text messages were comprehended just as effectively as normal text.

 

 

Question 2

 

Which of these is NOT one of the stages of language production?

 

planning

assembly

self-monitoring

conceptualization

 

 

Question 3

 

“Greg had such a bad night out at the bar that he decided to buy a updated cue stick.” The inference that Greg had a bad night because he shot billiards poorly is a ________. This inferred fact ________ represented as prominently as if it had actually been presented.

 

a bridging inference; would not be

an elaborative inference; would not be

a bridging inference; would be

an elaborative inference; would be

 

Question 4

 

Place of articulation is to manner of articulation as ________ is to ________.

 

release; vibration

vocal cords; air flow

interrupt; stop

where; how

 

Question 5

 

All of the following statements are true about “motherese” EXCEPT:

 

it tends to be higher pitched than normal speech.

it is found across many different languages.

it features exaggerated ups and downs in pitch.

it tends to be faster than normal speech.

 

Question 6

 

Which of these is NOT one of the levels of discourse representation?

 

situation model

surface code

text base

analog code

 

Question 7

 

When children lie and deceive their parents to keep out of trouble, they are using which design feature of language?

 

Arbitrariness

specialization

displacement

prevarication

 

Question 8

 

Which of the statements about the mental lexicon and lexical access is true?

 

Only one meaning of an ambiguous word (e.g., bank) is activated upon word presentation.

Low-frequency words are more quickly accessed than are high-frequency words.

For bilinguals, a given concept has only one entry in the mental lexicon.

The mental lexicon is part of semantic memory.

 

Question 9

 

Chomsky’s approach to how we engage in language is termed:

transformational grammar.

constraint-based grammar.

phonetic grammar.

syntactic based grammar.

 

Question 10

 

You are taking a test about language. Your ability to think about language in order to complete the test is an example of which design feature?

 

productivity

arbitrariness

reflectiveness

semanticity

 

Question 11

 

About how many phonemes make up American English?

10

25

45

105

 

Question 12

 

The most impressive evidence that animals are indeed capable of learning language comes from the research done with:

 

Question 13

 

The story grammar approach basically applies which notion (from sentence comprehension) to the comprehension of stories and larger units of discourse?

 

case grammar

parsing

morphology

constraint-based grammar

 

 

Question 14

 

What is parsing?

 

the process of accessing word meaning

the process of converting syntax into semantics

the process of identifying the component elements of a sentence

the process of mapping the look of a word onto the sound of a word

 

Question 15

 

Anaphors are more likely to result in the successful retrieval of an appropriate antecedent when:

the antecedent has occurred recently.

the antecedent received first mention.

both factors mentioned in a and b are important.

neither factor mentioned in a and b are important.

 

Question 16

______ represents a phonetic difference (but not a phonemic difference).

 

The “g” in dog and the “g” in log

The “d” in dog and the “l” in log

The “t” in pit and the “th” in with

The “p” in pit and the “s” in sit

 

 

Question 17

 

In their research with Kanzi and other bonobo chimps, Savage-Rumbaugh and colleagues have investigated whether language can be acquired in the form of:

American Sign Language.

 

 

Question 18

 

High frequency words like robin receive _____ fixation as/than low-frequency words like penguin.

 

the same amount of

more

less

 

Question 19

 

Which of these describes the bottom-up processes in reading?

Reading is aided by expectations.

Reading is aided by context.

Reading is aided by other words.

Reading requires analysis of the printed symbols.

 

Question 20

 

Dyslexics have particular trouble:

 

reading words in the correct order.

recognizing words when they hear them.

mapping the look of a word onto its sound.

performing normally on standard measures of intelligence.

 

Question 21

 

Rayner, White, Johnson, and Liversedge (2006) examined fixation times for words that were normal or jumbled. They found that:

 

words with the internal letters transposed had the longest fixation times.

words with the initial letter transposed had the longest fixation times.

fixation times for normal words and for words with ending letters transposed were the same.

there was no difference between words with internal, ending, or beginning letters transposed.

 

Question 22

 

The concept of a ________ comes from Bartlett’s classic research on story recall.

story grammar

proposition

script

schema

 

Question 23

 

Gricean maxims in language indicate that our conversational partners should conform to all of the following

EXCEPT:

avoidance of ambiguity.

grammatical correctness.

 

Question 24

 

All of the following statements are true about “motherese” EXCEPT:

 

it tends to be higher pitched than normal speech.

it is found across many different languages.

it features exaggerated ups and downs in pitch.

it tends to be faster than normal speech.

 

Question 25

 

Which of these is NOT an assumption of the construction-integration model of text comprehension?

 

We encode ideas from texts as propositions.

Ideas from a text, once encoded, are organized hierarchically.

We use working memory to construct the text representation.

The more propositions in a text, the more easily we comprehend it.

 

Question 26

 

Pinker proposes that in order to “morph” words into different forms (i.e., past tense), we have:

 

one system that is associative; we encode associations between the past and present tense, and use them to retrieve one another.

one system that operates via rules; we use these rules (e.g., “add an -s to make a plural”) to morph words.

two systems; we use the rule system for exceptions, and the associative system for non-exceptions.

two systems; we use the rule system for non-exceptions, and the associative system for exceptions.

 

Question 27

 

The design feature of language that allows us to communicate ideas that are remote in space and time is:

 

Question 28

 

Luo, Johnson, & Gallo (1998) tested whether “pseudohomophones” (e.g., “brane”) would show effects of semantic relatedness. In other words, would the letter string “brane” prime a related concept (e.g., neuron)?

What did they find?

 

That access to the mental lexicon was most probably direct.

Pseudohomophones primed only the actual word (e.g., “brain,” in this example).

Pseudohomophones did not prime related concepts.

Pseudohomophones did prime related concepts.

 

Question 29

 

The difficulty in processing garden-path sentences:

confirms that the default structure in English syntax tends to be subject-object-verb.

is evidence against the garden-path approach.

is evident in reading times, but not in eye movements.

applies to blind readers of Braille.

PSY 352 Week 5 Final Paper Questions in Psycholinguistics (2 Papers) updated

PSY 352 Week 5 Final Paper Questions in Psycholinguistics (2 Papers) updated

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PSY 352 Week 5 Final Paper Questions in Psycholinguistics (2 Papers) updated

 

Questions in Psycholinguistics. Due by Day 7. Language is an important tool for storing, organizing, and retrieving information that has been acquired throughout one’s life, as well as for thinking, modifying, and sharing such information with others. Thus, researchers ask many questions about language and its use. For this assignment, complete the steps listed below:

 

• Select one of the following topics:

 

o Recent research has shown that bilingualism shapes the human mind. What are some of the short-term and/or long-term consequences of bilingualism on information processing? Include at leasttwo sets of findings (e.g., speed of processing and vocabulary size) in your paper.

 

o Human language is more than a communication system. What are the unique properties of human language that make it different from communication systems used by other species?

 

o Most of language use in adults relies on reading, an ability that is often acquired later in life than the ability to speak and understand speech in one’s primary language. Why is learning how to read more challenging than learning how to speak in one’s primary language?

 

o Ambiguities in the meaning of words and phrases are far from rare occurrences. Yet, both speakers and listeners (or readers) often do not appear to notice them. What are these ambiguities,

 

and why do they often go unnoticed?

 

o Can you “forget” words in your first language while you are learning a second language? Summarize the available evidence to explain your answer.

 

o More than half a century ago, two researchers, Noam Chomsky and B. F. Skinner, debated the role of nature and nurture in language acquisition. What was the viewpoint of each researcher? What was the evidence upon which their contrasting viewpoints relied?

 

Review the literature on the selected topic.

 

For your selected topic, use at least three peer-reviewed articles that can answer the questions related to it.

 

Summarize the evidence you have found and then critically examine it. Engage your critical thinking skills.

 

For instance, ask yourself if the available evidence is sufficient to support the interpretations that researchers have proposed, and/or whether there are ambiguities and unknowns.

 

Begin your paper with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define all concepts that will be discussed in the paper. Include a brief summary of the content of the selected article according to the guidelines described above.

 

Analyze the key findings, illustrating the consistencies and inconsistencies.

Include a conclusion expressing your thoughts about the strengths and weaknesses of the available evidence. If possible, suggest the course that future research should take if answers are less than conclusive.

 

The Questions in Psycholinguistics Final Paper

Must be five to six double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

PSY 352 Week 5 Discussion Language, Perception, and Cognition updated

PSY 352 Week 5 Discussion Language, Perception, and Cognition updated

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PSY 352 Week 5 Discussion Language, Perception, and Cognition updated

 

Language, Perception, and Cognition. 1st Post Due by Day 3. In this discussion forum, you will examine what language says about how the human mind works. More specifically, you will consider whether the language people speak (including the words that are available to them and the way words are organized to convey meaning) merely offers a window into human cognition or it can actually affect the way people perceive and understand the world.

 

Please note that your answer to this question needs be supported by scientific evidence. For your initial post, complete the steps below:

 

Watch the videos, Steven Pinker: What our Language Habits Reveal and Keith Chen: Could your Language Affect your Ability to Save Money? on the links between language and cognition.

Read The New York Times article Does Your Language Shape How You Think? to further your understanding of the links between language and cognition.

 

Access the Ashford University Library and Google Scholar, review the psycholinguist literature, and then select a research article that offers an answer to the question about whether language shapes perceptions and thoughts or merely reflects them. Share the evidence you have uncovered and your critical examination of such evidence with the class. Your initial post must include a minimum of 300 words.

 

Guided Response: Offer a substantial response to at least two other posts written by members of the class. Respond to a post that discusses a different viewpoint from the one that you have selected, a post that discusses the same viewpoint, and an inquiry from your instructor.

 

Keep in mind that both peers and instructor are members of the class. In your answers, discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the content of each post. Be sure that you cite scientific evidence to support your views.

 

A minimum of 200 words should be used for each response to other posts. Be certain to continue monitoring the discussion board until 5 p.m. (Pacific Time) on Day 7 of the week

PSY 352 Week 4 Quiz updated

PSY 352 Week 4 Quiz updated

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PSY 352 Week 4 Quiz updated

 

Question 1

 

Suppose I am planning a wedding with 200 guests, and everyone is going to have a designated place at 22 different dinner tables. Trying to figure out who is going to sit where, and with whom, would be considered:

 

an arrangement problem.

a divergent problem.

a transformation problem.

a deduction problem.

 

Question 2

 

Our tendency to avoid situations in which many people may be killed while simultaneously being relatively impervious to risky situations in which deaths are more spread out is termed:

 

Fatality Fear.

Dread Risk.

Fatal Risk Assessment.

 

Question 3

 

A finding regarding medical expertise indicates that those at an intermediate level of knowledge actually remember more information than do experts. This is termed the:

 

intern effect.

novice effect.

intermediate effect.

expert effect.

 

Question 4

 

The belief that after a run of bad luck a change is “due” to occur is called:

 

superstition effect.

gambler’s fallacy.

hot hand.  

an “in” with the Gods.

 

Question 5

 

Castel, McCabe, Roediger, and Heitman (2007) investigated whether experts might be more or less susceptible than novices to the DRM memory illusion. They tested people who were more and less knowledgeable aboutand found that experts were

 

football; more likely than novices to falsely recall items

football; less likely than novices to falsely recall items

cooking; more likely than novices to falsely recall items

cooking; less likely than novices to falsely recall items

 

Question 6

 

Means-end analysis is basically a fancy term for:

 

breaking a problem down into subgoals.

applying analogies to solve a problem.

applying algorithms to solve a problem.

working backwards to solve a problem.

 

Question 7

 

Immediate memory capacity is _____ with susceptibility to the belief-bias effect.

 

not correlated

negatively correlated

positively correlated

synonymous with

 

 

Question 8

 

Which of these is an example of the sunk cost effect?

 

Sally is too sick to go out, but decides to attend the play since she paid $40 for the ticket.

Jenny relents to the high-pressure sales person and spends $550 on accessories she doesn’t need.

Despite continued losses, Tony continues to play the ponies at the local track.

Aaron has a decent seat for the basketball game, but decides to upgrade them by buying much better seats from a scalper.

 

 

Question 9

 

Which of these is NOT a difference between the way experts and novices go about solving a problem?

 

Experts tend to work backwards; novices tend to work forwards.

Experts can practically bypass working memory in encoding problem information; novices can’t.

Novices tend to pick up on surface features, while experts are better at picking up structural features.

Experts are better at picking up on analogies and using them to solve problems.

 

Question 10

 

According to the dual-process view of reasoning, judgment and decision making, which mode of thinking operates relatively slowly, deliberately and in a controlled manner?

heuristic mode

rational mode

bounded mode

analytic mode

 

Question 11

 

In a valid syllogism:

 

the conclusion follows from the premises.

the premises are true.

the conclusion is true.

all of the above are true.

 

 

Question 12

 

Research on the ability to see and apply analogies between the “radiation problem” (tumor problem) and the attack problem indicates that:

 

people commonly miss the analogy with or without a hint.

people easily see the connection between the problems, and use it to solve the second one.

people rarely see the connection between the problems unless they’re given a hint; then, they usually do make the connection.

analogies only work with complex problems, not simple ones.

 

 

Question 13

 

Mental set operates at which stage of problem solving?

 

problem representation

generation of solutions

problem identification

applying solutions

 

 

Question 14

 

The ________ view of inductive reasoning states that inductive reasoning involves special processes and representations that operate in the abstract, outside of any real-life context.

 

experience based

rule-based

categorization

confirmatory

 

 

Question 15

Which of the following is NOT one the three sources of difficulty in solving insight problems according to Kershaw and Ohlsson?

 

Perceptual factors

Experience factors

Process factors

Knowledge factors

PSY 352 Week 4 Discussion Problem Solving Popular Beliefs and Evidence updated

PSY 352 Week 4 Discussion Problem Solving Popular Beliefs and Evidence updated

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PSY 352 Week 4 Discussion Problem Solving Popular Beliefs and Evidence updated

 

Problem Solving: Popular Beliefs and Evidence. 1st Post Due by Day 3. In this discussion forum, you will assess the validity of popular assumptions and beliefs about problem solving. Please note that your answers need be supported by scientific evidence. For your initial post, complete the steps below:

 

Watch the video, Rory Sutherland: Sweat the Small Stuff, on how simplicity can benefit problem solving.

 

Select one of the following topics:

o Laypersonsandscientist’salikeoftenreportthatafterhavingtriedtosolveaproblemforanentire day, “sleeping on it” led to a solution. Does sleep indeed promote problem solving?

 

o Laypersonsandscientist’salikeoftenreportthatasolutiontoaproblemmaycometomindafter having taken a break from thinking about the problem. Does incubation really work?

 

Select a theoretical view/model of problem solving (e.g., Gestalt psychology, information processing approach, etc.). What is the evidence that supports it? What evidence, if any, does not fit the model?

 

Are experts better at solving problems than non-experts? If so, what is responsible for experts’ superior performance? Is their superiority general or limited to their field of expertise?

 

Are there individual differences in problem-solving abilities? For instance, is working memory’s capacity linked to one’s ability to solve problems?

After you select a topic, access the Ashford University Library and Google Scholar and review the literature on problem solving.

 

Then select a research article that answers the questions related to the selected topic. Finally, share the evidence you have uncovered and your critical examination of such evidence with the class. Your initial post must be a minimum of 300 words.

 

Guided Response: Offer a substantial response to at least two other posts written by members of the class.

 

Respond to a post that discusses a different topic from the one that you have selected, a post that discusses the same topic, and an inquiry from your instructor. Keep in mind that both your peers and your instructor are members of the class.

 

In your answers, discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the content of each post. Be sure that you cite scientific evidence to support your views. A minimum of 200 words should be used for each response to other posts

PSY 352 Week 4 Assignment Understanding Experiments in Cognition (2 Papers) updated

PSY 352 Week 4 Assignment Understanding Experiments in Cognition (2 Papers) updated

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PSY 352 Week 4 Assignment Understanding Experiments in Cognition (2 Papers) updated

 

Understanding Experiments in Cognition.

 

Due by Day 7. It is reasonable to admit that in four weeks you have been exposed to a great deal of information about the human mind! This assignment will give you the opportunity to examine how the knowledge that you have acquired during the past weeks may tie together.

 

You will explore a phenomenon that interests you, highlight the methodologies used to study it, uncover the results obtained, and assess the validity of the knowledge acquired. These activities will make you aware of the intrinsic relationship between knowledge of specific mental and behavioral phenomena, as well as the limitations of the techniques used to study them.

 

Knowledge in cognitive psychology is largely gathered by means of experiments.

 

Thus, it is important that you become intimately familiar with this data-gathering method.

 

The goal of the assignment is to ensure that you have a good understanding of specific cognitive psychological phenomena as well as experiments that are often used to investigate such phenomena. Abide by the instructions listed below:

 

Watch the video, Experimental Research Methods in Psychology, on the experimental method.

 

Go to the Ashford University Library or Google Scholar and select a peer-reviewed article on a topic of interest among those discussed in our class. If you prefer, you may select an article from the recommended resources.

Describe the main research questions that the study attempts to answer.

 

Keep in mind that a description of the main question of the study entails an explanation of the importance of the question (i.e., illustrates the gap in the existing literature).

 

State the main hypothesis (prediction) made by the researchers.

Identify the key variables.

 

Describe the critical characteristics of both the participants and the procedures used.

 

Summarize the main findings. How do these findings answer the question that the researchers formulated in the introductory section of the article?

Explain the extent to which the findings answer the research question.

 

Do the findings support their research question (or prediction)?

 

Illustrate the weaknesses and strengths of the selected study. For instance, ask yourself questions such as the following:

 

o Is the technique used to understand the selected phenomenon able to gather adequate information about it?

 

o How does this technique compare to other techniques used in cognitive psychology?

 

o Do the findings of the selected study generalize to individuals who may be different from those

 

who participated (young versus older adults)?

 

• Please note that research articles often contain more than one study. Thus, in this assignment, you are given the opportunity to describe each experiment separately or focus on what you believe to be the most significant experiment.

 

Your paper must begin with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define the research question and all concepts that will be discussed in the paper.

 

For instance, let us assume you select the article by Strayer and Johnston “Driven to Distraction: Dual-Task Studies of Simulated Driving and Conversing on a Cellular Telephone” as the topic of your paper. Then your task is to state the question the researchers want to answer and define the terms attention, divided attention, and distraction.

 

Your paper requires a brief summary of the content of the selected article according to the guidelines described above. It also requires a conclusion expressing your thoughts about the strengths and weaknesses of the available evidence. If possible, suggest the course that future research should take if the answer to the selected question is less than conclusive.

 

The Memory Errors in Real Life Paper

 

Must be four to five double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

PSY 352 Week 3 Quiz updated

PSY 352 Week 3 Quiz updated

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PSY 352 Week 3 Quiz updated

 

Question 1

 

If an eyewitness to a crime experiences a weapon focus, he or she will be:

 

more likely to remember information about the gun, but less likely to remember what the person is wearing

more likely to remember what the person is wearing, but less likely to remember information about the gun

more likely to remember peripheral details, but less likely to remember central details

equally likely to remember peripheral and central details

 

Question 2

 

When recalling an autobiographical memory, Conway’s self-memory systems says that:

 

we access sensory-perceptual details at the level of lifetime periods

we reconstruct the event starting from event-specific knowledge, then general events, and finally lifetimeperiods

we reconstruct the event starting from lifetime periods, then general events, and finally accessing event specific knowledge

retrieval of autobiographical memories is fast and accurate

 

Question 3

 

Which of these autobiographical memory research techniques allows for firmer conclusions about memoryaccuracy?

 

targeted event recall

diary technique

cue word technique

public record assessment

 

 

Question 4

 

People often tout the power of smells as cues for autobiographical memories. How does empirical researchstack up on this issue?

 

Olfactory cues produce more detailed memories than do non-olfactory cues.

Olfactory cues produce more recent memories than do non-olfactory cues.

Olfactory cues produce more vivid memories than do non-olfactory cues.

Olfactory cues tend to produce flashbulb memories.

 

Question 5

 

One research strategy for investigating childhood memories (in order to check and verify the accuracy ofremembered childhood events) is to:

 

investigate participants’ pasts to confirm the events they remember

ask about salient events that can be easily corroborated by other parties

stage events that can be asked about later on

there is no way to corroborate any childhood memory.

 

Question 6

 

The Proust phenomenon is:

 

the power of odors to elicit memories that are especially old and vivid

the ability of odors to generate more detailed memories

using olfactory odors to generate autobiographical facts

the ability of odors to generate very early memories in life

 

Question 7

 

In their study of early childhood memories, Usher and Neisser (1993) found that:

 

family stories and photographs helped the memories of all children

family stories and photographs hurt the memories of all children

family stories and photographs hurt the memories of children four and older

family stories and photographs hurt the memories of children three years and younger

 

Question 8

 

Relating details of personally experienced events makes us seem more believable and truthful, and tends to make us more persuasive. This assertion relates to which function of autobiographical memory?

 

emotional

informational

communicative

directive

 

 

Question 9

 

The “general events” level of representation in autobiographical memory bears a strong resemblance to:

 

the subordinate level of category representation

the superordinate level of category representation

the basic level of category representation

the notion of an exemplar in category representation

 

Question 10

 

Williams (1994) attempted to corroborate individual cases of lost traumatic memories by finding individualswho had been admitted 17 years earlier to sexual abuse clinics and interviewing them about their current knowledge of the experience. The findings are interpreted as evidence ____ the reality of repressed then recovered memories because __________:

 

for; over 1/3 failed to remember the event for which they had been admitted.

for; all of them failed to remember the event for which they had been admitted.

against; all of them vividly remembered the event for which they had been admitted.

 

 

Question 11

 

All of the following statements about the misinformation effect are true except:

 

It is an example of the memory sin of suggestibility.

 

It is an example of the memory sin of misattribution.

It is an example of retroactive interference.

It is an example of the memory sin of bias.

 

 

Question 12

 

Marian and Neisser (2000) conducted a study in which Russian immigrants to the United States were givenRussian or English cue words for autobiographical memories. The results of this study provided a conceptual replication of this classic memory phenomenon in the context of autobiographical memory:

 

a levels of processing effect

the beneficial effect of organization on memory

encoding specificity

a dissociation between implicit and explicit memory

 

 

Question 13

 

According to the Innocence Project, eyewitness misidentification plays a key role in ___ of the cases of wrongful conviction in which DNA evidence later led to exoneration.

 

about 25%

about 50%

about 75%

all

 

Question 14

 

The reminiscence bump refers to the finding that ________ and seems to apply ________.

 

people show a standard forgetting curve for the last several years of their autobiography; only to episodicmemory

people show a standard forgetting curve for the last several years of their autobiography; to both episodicand semantic memory

people tend to recall a disproportionate number of events from between ages 10 to 30; only to episodicmemory

people tend to recall a disproportionate number of events from between ages 10 to 30; to both episodic and semantic memory

 

 

Question 15

 

Garry and Wade compared the effects of photos and narratives in producing false memories and found that:

 

both were about equally likely to lead to false remembering.

neither one led to much false remembering.

narratives led to more false remembering than did photos.

photos led to more false remembering than did narratives.

PSY 352 Week 3 Discussion The Fallible Nature of Memory updated

PSY 352 Week 3 Discussion The Fallible Nature of Memory updated

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PSY 352 Week 3 Discussion The Fallible Nature of Memory updated

 

The Fallible Nature of Memory. 1st Post Due by Day 3. In this discussion forum, you will explore the imperfect content of our memories of experiences. For your initial post, complete the following steps:

 

• Watch the following videos: o FalseMemories

 

o LoftusSpeaks:TheMalleabilityofMemory

 

In the videos, Loftus describes the ease with which false memories can be created or altered.

 

Yet people like Paul Shanely are incarcerated, convicted of heinous crimes based on the testimony of men who have claimed to have repressed memories of years of childhood sexual abuse until adulthood. The two sides of the argument are referred to as “The Memory Wars.” For this discussion, choose one of the following prompts:

 

Analyze both sides of the Shanely case. Which side is best supported by the scientific evidence? Which one do you support and why?

 

Analyze the case of the Ramona family. How could the daughter repress such memories for so long? Does the fact that her father successfully sued the therapist prove that the memories are false?

 

Analyze the case of Jennifer Thompson-Cannino and Ronald Cotton. How is it possible to be so sure that you recognize a face when it is not the right person?

 

Provide an overview of Loftus’ research. How does that prove (or not) that memories can be created or altered?

Use your critical thinking skills and present a cogent analysis and argument for the position you choose to defend. Support your points with evidence from at least one peer-reviewed research article. Your initial post must be a minimum of 300 words.

 

Guided Response: Respond to at least two of your classmates. Choose posts that address a different prompt than you chose. In your answers, discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the content of each post.

 

A minimum of 200 words should be used for each response to other posts. Be certain to continue monitoring the discussion board until 5 p.m. (Pacific Time) on Day 7 of the week.

PSY 352 Week 3 Assignment Memory Errors in Real Life (2 Papers) updated

PSY 352 Week 3 Assignment Memory Errors in Real Life (2 Papers) updated

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PSY 352 Week 3 Assignment Memory Errors in Real Life (2 Papers) updated

 

Memory Errors in Real Life. Due by Day 7. Laypersons are often unaware of the extent to which memory errors (including memory of events that did not occur and memory distortions) are commonplace and widespread. The purpose of this assignment is to make you think of not only memory errors in real life, but also the reasons behind their occurrence. Consider the steps listed below:

 

Read the “Adaptive Constructive Processes and the Future of Memory” and “Creating False Memories” articles, which offer an overview of memory errors and their origins.

 

Keep in mind that your textbook is another valuable source of information regarding memory errors.

 

Select a case mentioned in a updateds article where memory errors have been known or can be assumed to have occurred (e.g., eyewitness testimony, instances of recovered memories of traumatic experiences,

etc.).

 

Describe the main features of the errors, their consequences, and their possible sources (i.e., what are the features of human memory that make the errors possible?).

 

Engage your critical thinking skills:

 

Explain what cognitive psychology suggests that people do to decrease the occurrence of the memory errors that you discuss in your paper. If these errors cannot be avoided, what does cognitive psychology

suggest that people do to prevent the often damaging consequences of such errors?

 

Note that statements regarding the inaccuracy of human memory, and strategies to decrease the occurrence of errors and their consequences are to be supported by scientific evidence collected by experts.

 

Thus, review the literature on memory errors and use at least two peer-reviewed articles that can answer the questions above.

 

Must begin with an introduction to the selected topic in which you define all concepts that will be discussed in the paper.

 

Include a brief description of the memory errors featured in the selected updateds article as well as discussing potential sources and known or likely consequences according to the guidelines described above.

 

Include a conclusion expressing your thoughts about how these memory errors can be prevented or reduced, and the extent to which their often dreadful consequences can be minimized. Keep in mind that although your opinion is valuable, it needs to be supported by scientific evidence.

 

The Memory Errors in Real Life Paper

 

Must be three to four double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.

PSY 352 Week 2 Quiz updated

PSY 352 Week 2 Quiz updated

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PSY 352 Week 2 Quiz updated

 

Question 1

 

Experience in media multi-tasking is associated with:

 

no change in the ability to control attention.

an increased ability to control attention.

a decreased ability to control attention.

 

 

Which of these is a basic level category member?

a. tool

b. apple

c. vehicle

red-winged blackbird

 

Question 2

 

A problem with an extreme version of the exemplar approach is that:

 

people are not sensitive to the biasing effects of context.

it is not based on the idea of similarity to an example.

it uses only the average examples, not all of the examples in memory.

it is not economical to store every single example in memory.

 

Question 3

 

Several researchers have examined how well deaf participants remember signs, just as listeners remember words they hear. In listening, words that sound alike are less likely to be remembered. What happens withAmerican Sign Language?

 

Signs that are close in meaning, regardless of motion involved in the sign, are less likely to be recalled.

Signs whose words sound the same if said aloud are less likely to be recalled, regardless of motion involvedin the sign.

Signs that are made up of similar motions are less likely to be recalled.

There is no sign length effect—all signs were remembered equally well.

 

Question 4

 

One of the major criticisms of the classical view of concepts is that:

 

it has a graded structure.

members in certain categories have too much family resemblance.

it is not based on similarity.

it is difficult to determine what are necessary and sufficient features for many categories.

 

Question 5

 

In image-based approaches to object recognition:

 

objects are recognized holistically through comparison with a stored analog representation.

identification of the object is viewpoint independent.

a rotated image can be recognized just as quickly as an image in its normal orientation.

an object must first be broken down into components.

 

Question 6

 

Which of these combinations of repetition/rehearsal would lead to the best memory?

 

massed/elaborative

distributed/elaborative

distributed/maintenance

massed/maintenance

 

Question 7

When you’re attempting to remember what you did last night, this would be an ________ memory task that taps into ________.

 

explicit; episodic

explicit; semantic

implicit; episodic

implicit; semantic

 

Question 8

Semantic memories:

 

are generally retrieved in the absence of a recollective experience.

tend to be more vulnerable to forgetting than episodic memories.

typically include an affective (i.e., emotional) component.

aren’t all that important in day-to-day living.

 

Question 9

The testing effect most likely is most clearly related to this general memory framework:

 

material-appropriate processing

transfer-appropriate processing

levels-of-processing

the distinction between episodic and semantic memory

 

Question 10

Prosopagnosia refers to:

 

an inability to identify smells.

an inability to recognize familiar faces.

an inability to recognize common objects.

an inability to detect objects in one particular area of one’s visual field.

 

Question 11

 

If I show one group of subjects a list of phrases, such as “break the toothpick,” and then had a second group of subjects actually perform the actions, which group would be more likely to remember the action phrases?

 

the group that studied the verbal phrases  

the group that performed the actions

they would remember the phrases about the same

the verbal group on a recall test; the action group on a recognition test

 

Question 12

 

In parts-based approaches to object recognition:

 

the identification of the object is viewpoint dependent.

the whole image of the object is examined holistically.

the representation stored in memory is analogous to the object being recognized.

the orientation or the perspective of view on the object is not important.

 

 

Question 13

 

Research on the long-term retention of knowledge learned through formal instruction leads to the conclusion that retention depends on the length of time over which initial learning takes place. According to your text, this is another instance of the powerful mnemonic benefits of:

 

distributed repetition

a deep level of processing

subjective organization

visual imagery1

 

Question 14

 

The ________ approaches to object recognition might also be termed feature analysis, and propose thatrecognition ________ depend on the particular perspective we have on the object to be recognized.

image-based; does

image-based; does not

parts-based; does

parts-based; does not

 

 

Question 15

 

When faced with a picture of someone, which of these is most difficult?

recognizing that the face is someone familiar

retrieving the person’s name

retrieving a piece of biographical information about the person

All information about faces is retrieved with about an equal level of difficulty.

 

Question 16

 

The operation span task:

 

is a measure of visual attention.

requires that participants memorize a series of numbers.

requires participants to perform three tasks concurrently.

requires attentional control and inhibition.

 

Question 17

 

Deaf individuals:

 

show effects of similarity, but not word length.

have no articulatory loop at all.

show effects of word length, but not similarity.

show effects of word length and similarity, just like hearing individuals.

 

Question 18

 

The fuzzy boundaries in categories is best illustrated by which of the following statements?

 

Bowling is “sort of” like a sport, but also “sort of” like a game.

An orange is more representative of the category “fruit” than a kiwi is.

“Furniture” is the superordinate level category for the basic level category of “couch”.

Only natural categories have fuzzy boundaries.

 

Question 19

 

The function of working memory whereby we strategically direct our attention is called:

 

working attention.

sensory attention

executive attention

focus of attention

 

Question 20

 

The classic measure used to assess immediate memory capacity limits is termed:

 

the Stroop task.

memory span.

the Brown-Peterson task.  

the juggling task.

 

Question 21

 

Maintenance rehearsal:

 

helps performance on a recall memory test, but not on a recognition memory test

helps performance on a recognition memory test, but not on a recall memory test

helps performance on both recall and recognition memory tests

helps performance on neither recall nor recognition memory tests

 

Question 22

 

According to the memory systems account of implicit/explicit dissociations:

 

explicit memory performance is based on procedural memory, while implicit performance is based on declarative memory

explicit memory performance is based on declarative memory, while implicit performance is based on procedural memory

both explicit and implicit memory performance are based on semantic memory

both explicit and implicit memory performance are based on procedural memory

Question 23

The functions of concepts in our everyday thinking include all of the following EXCEPT:

 

slower and more careful thinking.

making predictions.

communicating with others.

supporting updated learning.

 

Question 24

 

The most conservative estimate of the limits on immediate memory is:

1 or 2.

3 or 4.

 

Question 25

 

According to Wegner and his colleagues, the ironic effects of thought suppression:

are more likely to occur when attention is overloaded.

occur because of the failure of an ironic monitoring process.

can be explained by a three-factor theory of cognitive control.

occur because the intentional operating process operates too efficiently.

 

 

Question 26

 

The case where later information interferes with the ability to retain information that occurred earlier is called:

 

a anterograde amnesia.

b. retroactive interference.

c. proactive interference.

d. retrograde amnesia.

 

Question 27

 

Baddeley proposed that the functions of the central executive might be better specified through what he termed _____ of the central executive.

 

delineation

fractionation

dissociation

separation