**HLT 362V Week 1 Assignment Workbook Exercise 6, 8, 9, 11, 16, 27 updated**

** Exercise 6**

**What are the frequency and percentage of the COPD patients in the severe airﬂow limitation group who are employed in the Eckerblad et al. (2014) study?**

**What percentage of the total sample is retired? What percentage of the total sample is on sick leave?**

**What is the total sample size of this study? What frequency and percentage of the total sample were still employed? Show your calculations and round your answer to the nearest whole percent.**

**What is the total percentage of the sample with a smoking history—either still smoking or former smokers? Is the smoking history for study participants clinically important? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**What are pack years of smoking? Is there a signiﬁ cant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂ ow limitation groups regarding pack years of smoking? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**What were the four most common psychological symptoms reported by this sample of patients with COPD?**

**What percentage of these subjects experienced these symptoms? Was there a signiﬁcant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂow limitation groups for psychological symptoms?**

**What frequency and percentage of the total sample used short-acting β 2 -agonists? Show your calculations and round to the nearest whole percent.**

**Is there a signiﬁcant difference between the moderate and severe airﬂ ow limitation groups regarding the use of short-acting β 2 -agonists? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Was the percentage of COPD patients with moderate and severe airﬂ ow limitation using short-acting β 2 -agonists what you expected? Provide a rationale with documentation for your answer.**

**Are these ﬁndings ready for use in practice? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Exercise 8**

**The number of nursing students enrolled in a particular nursing program between the years of 2010 and 2016, respectively, were 563, 593, 606, 520, 563, 610, and 577. Determine the mean ( X ), median ( MD ), and mode of the number of the nursing students enrolled in this program. Show your calculations.**

**What is the mode for the variable inpatient complications in Table 2 of the Winkler et al. (2014) study? What percentage of the study participants had this complication?**

Does the distribution of inpatient complications have a single mode, or is this distribution bimodal or multimodal? Provide a rationale for your answer.

**4. As reported in Table 1 , what are the three most common cardiovascular medical history events in this study, and why is it clinically important to know the frequency of these events?**

**What are the mean and median lengths of stay (LOS) for the study participants?**

**Are the mean and median for LOS similar or different? What might this indicate about the distribution of the sample? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Examine the study results and determine the mode for arrhythmias experienced by the partici-pants. What was the second most common arrhythmia in this sample?**

**Was the most common arrhythmia in Question 7 related to LOS? Was this result statistically signiﬁ cant? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**What study variables were independently predictive of the 50 premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) per hour in this study?**

**In Table 1 , what race is the mode for this sample? Should these study ﬁ ndings be generalized to American Indians with ACS? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

** **

**Exercise 9**

**What were the name and type of measurement method used to measure Caring Practices in the Roch, Dubois, and Clarke (2014) study?**

**The data collected with the scale identiﬁed in Questions 1 were at what level of measurement? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**What were the subscales included in the CNPISS used to measure RNs ’ perceptions of their Caring Practices? Do these subscales seem relevant? Document your answer.**

**Which subscale for Caring Practices had the lowest mean? What does this result indicate?**

**What were the dispersion results for the Relational Care subscale of the Caring Practices in Table 2 ? What do these results indicate?**

**Which subscale of Caring Practices has the lowest dispersion or variation of scores? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Which subscale of Caring Practices had the highest mean? What do these results indicate?**

**Compare the Overall rating for Organizational Climate with the Overall rating of Caring Practices. What do these results indicate?**

**The response rate for the survey in this study was 45%. Is this a study strength or limitation? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**What conclusions did the researchers make regarding the caring practices of the nurses in this study? How might these results affect your practice?**

**Exercise 11**

**What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement?**

**What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate?**

**What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**What was the marital status mode for the subjects in the experimental and control groups? Provide both the frequency and percentage for the marital status mode for both groups.**

**Could a median be determined for the education data? If so, what would the median be for education for the experimental and the control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Can the findings from this study be generalized to Black women? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**If there were 32 subjects in the experimental group and 36 subjects in the control group, why is the income data only reported for 30 subjects in the experimental group and 34 subjects in the control group?**

**Was the sample for this study adequately described? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Exercise 16**

**The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement?**

**1. Nominal**

**2. Ordinal**

**3. Interval/ratio**

**4. Experimental**

**What was the mean posttest empowerment score for the control group?**

**Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the experimental group. Was this an expected finding? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Compare the mean baseline and posttest depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Which group’s test scores had the least amount of variability or dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Did the empowerment variable or self-care self-efficacy variable demonstrate the greatest amount of dispersion? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**The mean (X ̅) is a measure of a distribution while the SD is a measure of its scores. Both X ̅ and SD are statistics.**

**What was the mean severity for renal disease for the research subjects? What was the dispersion or variability of the renal disease severity scores? Did the severity scores vary significantly between the control and the experimental groups? Is this important? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Which variable was least affected by the empowerment program? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Was it important for the researchers to include the total means and SDs for the study variables in Table 2 to promote the readers’ understanding of the study results? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**Exercise 27**

**What is the mean age of the sample data?**

**What percentage of patients never used tobacco?**

**What is the standard deviation for age?**

**Are there outliers among the values of age? Provide a rationale for your answer.**

**What is the range of age values?**

**What percentage of patients were taking inﬂ iximab?**

**What percentage of patients had rheumatoid arthritis as their primary diagnosis?**

**What percentage of patients had irritable bowel syndrome as their primary diagnosis?**

**What is the 95% CI for age?**

**What percentage of patients had psoriatic arthritis as their primary diagnosis?**